The Complete Chakra Guide to the 7 Chakras Part Fifth – The 5th Chakra-

my-words-echo-softly-within-the-universe

Now, we have arrived at the 5th chakra, but I do highly recommend that you, as well, do read about the four previous chakras, so you can understand the whole connection of the complete chakra system.

You can get a good overview of all the 7 chakras by reading this shorter version.

Let’s see what we can find out about the 5th chakra.

throat-chakra-vishuddha
Vishuddha

What is the Chakra’s full name and where is it located on the Body?

The 5th chakra’s name is called the Throat Chakra. Its Sanskrit name is Vishuddha (pronounced Vee-shoo-ddha). The location on the body is the neck/throat area, see picture below.

location-of-the-chakras
Location of the Chakras

With this chakra, we are not only connected to the Thyroid gland, but to the whole voice box and this is important because it does connect us to communicate with the outside world, using words and sound to express the inner part of ourselves, our thoughts and feelings.

Specifics of the 5th Chakra

Self-expression is the keyword for the Throat chakra, it is the “Holy Grail” of the chakra system because it holds vital information of each of the other chakras. For us, the keywords would be, Surrender your personal Will to the Divine Will”.

The 5th chakra is all about communication, speaking your personal truth, your knowledge, your self-expression, creativity, harmony and following your dreams. This chakra is the center of our capacity of expression, communication, and inspiration. It further represents the link between the lower chakras (Root Chakra, Sacral Chakra, and Solar Plexus Chakra) and the Crown Chakra.

Through the energy of the 5th chakra, we do express everything which is alive inside of us like laughter, cries, happiness, sadness, love, anger, anxiety, just every feeling we as a human can have and be able to express. The element “ether” is associated with this chakra, it functions as the medium of sound and the spoken word. It further shows us that our personal power is being shown in our thoughts and attitudes.

Each and every choice we do make, as well each thought and feeling we have, will show us how we can act out with our personal power, and that it will always have consequences social, environmental and personal.

throat-chakra-affirmation

The 5th Chakra and the Emotion of Lying vs. Truth

To speak our truth is important and it allows us to express our individuality. However, to be really truthful towards others and most of all towards ourselves needs the healthy development of the previous four chakras before the 5th
chakra can be truly balanced.

We do need to build the trust in the 1st chakra, we do need the creative expression of the 2nd chakra, we do need the ego and the will of the 3rd chakra and, we do need the self-acceptance as well the love of the 4th chakra. Until these four chakras are not balanced enough, we will keep lying to ourselves. When I speak of lying, this is an act, which we are, most of the time, unaware of we are doing it.

truth-vs-lies

We are, in so many cases, unable to lie to others and if we do so, we mostly will feel awful. However, we certainly are doing it to ourselves.

Note: This is a personal journey, where every reader is on its own path and needs to be aware of it. Only you can find, in time, your own personal truth. I am certainly not here to judge nor will I ever condemn. We are here on this planet to fulfill our personal mission. We also have, each one of us, a personal understanding of the “Truth” as a whole.

Nevertheless, if we are out of the truth, our truth, we are out of sync too, not just with others but also with the universe. Our personal resonance will become interrupted and therefore, the discontinuity will be experienced. This situation can compromise our health and we become completely uncoordinated.

The Strength of the 5th Chakra

Besides speaking our truth or even lying to ourselves and others, the real strength also can be found in our voice and in our listening skills. Our voice is an expression of vibration. This chakra’s sense is sound and it is located at the throat. To have a voice is a healthy expression of the 5th chakra.

If this expression, though, our voice, is inhibited, we might sound whiny, mumbled or whispered. On the other hand, if our voice is expansive we might sound loud, shrill, or like to interrupt and dominate conversations.

A healthy Throat chakra will have a rhythm and resonate voice which can speak its truth clearly and concisely. Every conversation will be balanced between listening and responding. It further is important to our health that we have the freedom to express ourselves truthfully with “our” truth.

5th-chakra-affirmation

Another aspect is our creativity. To fully live “our” truth as an individual we need to live our life creatively too. Every communication is a creative act where we do express everything that is within us.

We do create our world in every moment due to our actions, communications, and expressions.

Creativity is further the expression of the spirit within us.

What are the most Physical Problems?

There is no doubt that we also can have sometimes physical problems with our throat. Who has never had a sore throat or perhaps even had laryngitis? I certainly did and I can tell you it was one of my most awful hours, unable to speak loud and clear or not at all, at least, for a couple of days.

However, beyond these conditions known to the mainstream public, there is still more which is connected with our throat and, of course, the throat chakra. We usually don’t think of it very much. Besides the common cold symptoms, including coughing, there are more conditions to be addressed which are indicating a physical imbalance of the 5th chakra.

  • Stuffed or Running Nose
  • Throat Tickle and Phlegm
  • Thyroid issues like Goiter, Hyper-or Hypo Thyroidism
  • Thyroid Cancer
  • Allergies
  • Asthma
  • Depression
  • Emphysema
  • Fatigue
  • Hyperactivity

What are the Signs of a Weak or of an Overactive 5th Chakra?

The sign of a weak 5th chakra can be often very subtle and being seen as “just” a personality trait, therefore, nothing to be worried about. Well, sometimes it isn’t that cotton dry. When a person, who once has spoken freely, suddenly developed a fear of speaking, it certainly shows that the 5th chakra has become imbalanced and the reason has to be found which has caused this change.

throat-chakra-treatment
Crystal & Gemstone Treatment for Throat Chakra

Further signs the 5th chakra has weakened are, the individual has a difficulty to put one’s feelings into words, or it has become (more) shy, quiet or withdrawn, it also has become out of touch with its own desires and, perhaps, is not trusting its own intuitive powers anymore.

On the other hand, if the 5th chakra has become overactive and showing too much excess energy you might realize it through the following.

The individual starts talking too much without giving others the opportunity to chime into the conversation, the individual also might develop a more defensive style of talking and shows a very dominating voice, usually to intimidate the other person(s) by shutting them up right at the beginning.

Furthermore, there is an inability to listen as well the language can be coarse and blatant. The individual also likes to be seen, at all cost, as very strong.

How to get to a balanced State with the 5th Chakra?

To balance this chakra is certainly not impossible, but a bit more challenging since it is so out in the open, visible to everyone to see. We can’t hide at all when it comes to having conversations with others, this is an absolute given on a daily basis. Everyone can hear and will see us in how we speak if our voice is strong or shaky, can we be heard loud and clear or do we whisper.

throat-chakra-cartoon

A healthy and balanced throat chakra can be acknowledged when the individual is able to openly express their feelings and thoughts, is living a creative life and has a strong imagination. The individual also has a colorful and clear speech, is trusting its inner guidance and will openly and freely share their knowledge, nothing stays hidden.

What is the Emotional State of the 5th Chakra?

Speaking and spreading the “Truth” is the main part of the 5th chakra this is just its natural state. We already have discovered that lying to others isn’t that all important than actually lying to ourselves.

However, besides the lying there is also the fact of resisting change, being trapped by fixed ideas and showing rigidity and stubbornness. The individual, furthermore, also likes to cling to traditions, likes to constantly surrender to superiors and will be slow to any response.

We all have to, some degree, had at least one of these emotional states experienced, through another person, in our lives which have been quite a challenge. It can’t be easy dealing with such a person on a daily basis might it be a superior manager at work, a coworker or a loved one at home.

One is for certain, we can’t change the other person and their behavior, but we can always change ourselves and how we like to respond to a situation. Digging a bit deeper into our own psyche, our own behavior and decide on how we do react to a situation, can often have a dramatic turnout for the better or worse, it always goes either way.

Colors

I always start with the tool of colors to balance a chakra because it is easy and we have most of the wanted colors already at home. Even though you might not like a particular color you still can wear it in the form of some underwear or a bra, no one will ever know.

The color of the 5th chakra is Blue and its complementary color is Orange. The frequency of the color Blue is 606-668 THz (TeraHertz).

If you have an aversion to the color blue try its complementary color orange. However, to have an aversion to any color it only shows, that we are in need to have this color, more than ever, into our lives. Therefore, try to get over the aversion and use the color in any way you can. You can’t lose you only can gain.

Note: If you will experience a sore throat or any other cold symptoms, try to wear a blue scarf around your neck and or wear a necklace/earrings with one of the suggested crystal and gemstones, it always has helped me to overcome the health condition must faster. Try it out, it certainly won’t hurt you.

throat-chakra-color

Crystal & Gemstones

The use of any crystal or gemstone is always one of my top tools when balancing a chakra or just my whole energy field (Aura) as a whole. I always feel energized, refreshed, calm and balanced.

In my practice as a holistic energy practitioner, I had many clients saying to me that they a) don’t know anything about crystals and gemstones nor do they know where to get them, and b) and this came usually from the male gender, they don’t know how to use them because they don’t wear jewelry.

There are always options in how to use these wonderful stones and no one needs to know about it.

First, if you like wearing jewelry, then this is usually not a big problem because there are tons of earrings, bracelets, and necklaces out there, in almost every crystal and gemstone you can imagine; sometimes even in combination with more than one crystal or gemstone.

Amazon has a wide collection, but I also suggest that you will buy them directly from a source. There, you can touch and feel the stone in your hands, or the piece of jewelry. You will know, then, if this stone is the one you like to wear or to use.

For the readers of my article who doesn’t like any form of jewelry to wear, here is a simple suggestion. Get the crystal or gemstone, of your choice, in the form of tumbled stone and, they also don’t need to be that big.

Just big enough so you can slip them easily in the pockets of your pants or jacket, voila, that’s all. The trick is, so to speak, to wear the stone inside of your energy field. That’s why jewelry is so perfect, however, if you don’t like to show it you can still wear it by hiding it.

The only thing, which doesn’t work, is the fact when you keep the stone in your purse, wallet or overcoat, it is not in reach of your energy field and therefore won’t do much for you.

Now, you have a few options and it is up to you which one you prefer. Here are my suggestions on crystal and gems for the 5th chakra.

  • Aquamarine
  • Blue lace Agate
  • Sapphire
  • Sodalite
  • Turquoise

crystals-for-the-throat-chakra

Meditation

Meditation is one of the easiest things to do, trust me on that. Even when you have never done any form of meditation before, you will be able to follow this one. Try to be consistent by doing it, at least, a couple of times in a week. You will feel the benefit of meditation having a positive impact on your overall health.

Having the time set for 10-15 minutes shouldn’t be very hard and this meditation is also very suitable for beginners since it is guided. Feel free to enjoy!

Affirmation

As I have said before, when writing about the previous chakras, affirmations are not enough when being used on its own. I always do recommend that you have, at least, one more of the other recommended tools with it in use.

Don’t get me wrong when I say that but when using affirmations as an only tool you have to be very consistent on a daily basis saying the affirmation 2-3 times for at least 5-10 minutes either out loud or silently in your head.

I know for a fact, and this includes me too, that in the beginning when we are so enthused about something, we do try hard to build momentum and to be consistent. However, reality can be cruel and when something is entering our daily routine and does interrupt it, we usually, and this happens more than you will imagine, will fall off the wagon. We try though to hop on again and perhaps, after a couple of times, we fall off the third time, which usually will mean the end and we just forget about it altogether.

Nevertheless, using affirmations shouldn’t be that hard to do and therefore, I do recommend, that you keep them written on a piece of paper, only 2 or 3 phrases, in the beginning, and say them out loud, if you can, or repeat them a few times quietly in your head. No one needs to know about it except You.

In time, it will become second nature to you and you will be comfortable in creating new phrases all by yourself. The only thing which is important, keep the momentum going and never give up. You will see that are changes happening, to you and in your environment. Be patient and have faith.

Here are my suggestions on affirmations where you can start from, just choose 2 or 3 phrases which are resonating with you and with your current life situation.

  • I do express myself freely
  • I can clearly communicate my thoughts
  • I can speak up for myself
  • I do speak openly my truth
  • I am able to hear the truth
  • I do listen and do acknowledge the needs of others
  • I do love and do trust my creative gifts
  • I am able to express my love and creativity in charity
  • I express my willpower in order to maintain my clarity

Feed your Body the right Food

To feel healthy on all levels of our Being is essential and to have a good and healthy diet is a huge part of it too. Now, there is much being said what a healthy diet should include and it also depends on what kind of diet you go for it or, in what you believe is a healthy diet.

There are meat eaters, vegetarians and or vegans. Then, there are people who are born with certain food allergies or have developed them in their early childhood which may include gluten intolerance due to celiac disease, or juvenile diabetes.

In my opinion though, whatever you like to prefer to eat make sure you still have a balanced diet which may look different from any other person’s balanced diet. The important thing is that you try to do the right thing by eating healthier.

crystal-gemstone-for-throat-chakra

If you are being honest to yourself, you will know right away if your diet includes enough veggies, fruits, etc. or do you eat too often on the go, buy or eat in a fast food restaurant?

Hey, I am not judging I only want you to make the right decision with a healthy diet which suits your lifestyle and your gusto.

Therefore, if you find yourself in need of balancing your Throat chakra here are some food and herb suggestions to be included in your daily diet, and don’t forget, always do your own due diligence.

Food:

  • Asparagus
  • Blueberries
  • Fish
  • Kale
  • Plums
  • Potatoes

Herb:

  • Blessed Thistle
  • Catnip
  • Elderberry
  • Fennel
  • Irish Moos
  • Kelp

throat-chakra-food

Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy means, using essential oils from good and reliable sources like doTera or Young Living but, there are more companies out there, they may be smaller than those two I just have mentioned, but might have a lower price point. The important part, however, is to make sure they are using organic products (plants and herbs) and not creating synthetic oils in their labs.

You can tell the difference by the price tag. I know, we all like to buy less expensive and I am one of them too. Yet, the process to create high-quality essential oils from real flowers, plants, and herbs is a long and delicate process and, no one can afford to ruin a whole batch when making these precious oils.

You also won’t need much when using them, just a couple of drops put into a diffuser will be enough to give you a wonderful aroma for a couple of hours or more.

However, it is always Your decision don’t take just my word for it, do your own due diligence.

Here are my favorite on essential oils to balance the 5th chakra.

  • Arnica
  • Birch
  • Chamomile
  • Lemon
  • Majoram
  • Peppermint

Summary

The throat chakra is not an easy one to get back into balance. It is the first of the three “higher” chakras and also has quite the power to exploit us to the outside world in the way we speak and how we like to express ourselves and our truth through the spoken word.

Nevertheless, it is also one of the chakras where we can emphasize our truth due to our creativity by our voice, not only speaking the words but singing them. Here in Northern Canada, the Inuit people have a special way of doing so through their traditional “Throat Singing”.

If you like to leave a comment or have a question, feel free to do so by using the comment box below.

Please, stay tuned for the 6th chakra to be discussed coming soon.

Until then I always wish you an outstanding day!

my signature

Author: Sylvia Kiliwia

Sylvia Mann has worked as a Geriatric Nurse and as a Nursing Instructor for many years. However, her passion also lies in holistic healing and seeking complementary healing modalities such as Reiki, Body Talk, EFT just to name a few. Spiritual topics about psychic abilities, the supernatural and more are also of interest to her. To be able to "heal yourself" is always the main focus to Sylvia when she writes an article to inform her readers.

18 thoughts on “The Complete Chakra Guide to the 7 Chakras Part Fifth – The 5th Chakra-”

  1. Good afternoon Sylvia,

    Your nice post on the Throat Chakra made me look at my life and the different episodes.
    From small onwards I have always been direct. My Mother used to say that I was an open book.
    Going to different countries learning languages I was never afraid to talk to people even if I still had no clue about that new language.
    Over the years from being often over impulsive I have moderated some and now I think before I speak, well, most of the time.
    Your suggestion of wearing stones to activate the 5th Chakra is something I really like. I have always loved stones and have a nice collection.
    Nice that you included the video Throat Singing of the Inuit. All the people who belong to old tribes have a much better understanding of things. The modern human has lost its touch with nature and relies on man-made food, systems, you name it. We are not in harmony with nature anymore and that causes all these modern-day disbalances in our life and body.
    I take care with my food and as a supplement take iodine drops and use only the Himalayan pink salt.
    I think that even if my 5th Chakra is perhaps not 100% it probably is close.

    Looking forward to your next post.

    Regards, Taetske

    1. Hi, Taetske,

      Thank you very much for your comment and for sharing your experience on the matter.

      Reading your response to my article about the 5th chakra and, you mention that we are “NOT” in harmony anymore with Mother Nature, made it even more clear to me why we, as humans, do have so many problems with our own energy field which does include the chakra system and the meridian system (Note: there is more to be said about our complex energy field but those two systems are the most known to the mainstream).

      I do look back to the previous chakras I have written about and see the connection, as a whole, to our lifestyles, the pollution, the imbalance of the ecosystem and the health and behavior of us humans and the animals. We not connected anymore and it shows, clearly, in the imbalance, we have in our subtle energy systems.

      Luckily, if we become aware of this imbalance we certainly can do something about it and by doing so, slowly, re-connect with Mother Nature which in the long haul, again, shows a positive change as a whole.

      Let’s keep working on ourselves this is the only way, in my opinion, to help Nature and ourselves.

      Namaste
      Sylvia

  2. This article did hit me hard because it made me realize how deficient my Throat Chakra is and the sad part is I knew it but didn’t want to believe it.
    Thank you for all your information I certainly will do something about it.

    My Regards
    Bell Taylor

    1. Hi Bell,
      It sometimes can be a bit of a shock to us when we start to realize that something isn’t running smoothly anymore. However, there is also no reason to feel guilty either. When we gain awareness of a situation which also needs to be changed, at that moment, we also do have the power to do something about it.
      I hope this will help you to make the right decision.

      Thank you for leaving a comment and sharing your insight.

      Namaste
      Sylvia

  3. Dear Sylvia, I relate to many things that you outlined hear in your summary of the 5th chakra Although I haven’t studied on this subject I can see where it is active in our lives.

    I do have an understanding of energy flow within our bodies and the importance of maintaining balance. Food, water, air and exercise play a huge part in this balance for the physical body.

    The interaction with nature and all manner of creation how it is active and plays a special roll in healing, like Herbs, essential oils and gems.

    It has not been that long since the understanding of our mental state plays in our overall balance. Many people do not understand the importance of the spiritual side which covers all aspects of the human condition.

    I am a great believer in self-healing and my hope is that someday all energy healing will become part of our society. It is a God-given gift from the creation of mankind and it is my understanding that all things will be uncovered and all truth shall be known nothing will be held back.

    When that will happen I do not know, but in the meantime, your work here is very important. I look forward to reading your post on the 6th chakra, so please inform me when you have posted.

    Always a better way,
    sending blessings your way,
    Linda

    1. Thank you so very much, dear Linda, for your wonderful comment on the subject matter, especially, about self-healing.
      Yes, it is a God-given gift that each and every one of us can heal themselves if they choose so.

      I personally wish, just as an example, that meditation should be taught mandatory in schools. I even will go further as early as Kindergarten. Children are still curious and naturally open without any filters.

      This would let them adapt easily and meditation will become second nature like brushing teeth or getting dressed. My belief is that the world as a whole would even become healthier and more peaceful.

      Of course, this is still a wish of mine, however, there is no Law who can forbid me to write about it and perhaps, someday it also can become mainstream and people will more and more speak about it. There are so many people on the planet who do think like you and me.

      That’s why it is so important to me that people also do know about the subtle energy systems like the chakras or the meridians, which have a huge impact on our health as a whole and therefore if we don’t take care of them our health will be even more in jeopardy.

      I appreciate your insight Linda and I certainly will inform you about my next article regarding the 6th chakra.

      Namaste
      Sylvia

      1. Hi there Sylvia, I think that is a great idea to teach children about meditation. I am a Sunday school teacher for 8 to 10-year-olds and this would be a great tool for them to dominate, their minds are so brilliant I am amazed how much information the Kids are storing especially about our Lord and it would be a great help for the Teacher also.

        I think they would have a greater capacity to hold information and less prone to being fidgety. but they are great kids.

        I will hold that thought always a better way Linda

        1. Thank you, Linda, for responding to my idea. I do believe that someday it will be possible to teach our children this method. If there is a way that it will happen, it will certainly happen.
          Time always will tell.
          Namaste
          Sylvia

  4. I personally find this very interesting, especially considering I have an under active thyroid.  Do you do any video’s on this?

    I’ve always had a fear of speaking in public and where there are too many crowds but I always blamed that on just being a shy person. However I am able to express myself easily by writing or typing but face to face sometimes is a challenger.  I know many people that will overpower a conversation though and that is really hard to handle.

    I used to like carrying around a tiger eye stone in my pocket as sort of a “worry stone” I don’t know if this is the same idea or not but it seemed to help at the time even if it was just in my mind.

    I think I will start practicing affirmations as I have a really hard time focusing on positive things as you said life is cold and hard sometimes….thank you for this great article and I will checking out the rest of your website too.

    1. Hi, Amanda, thank you so much for your honest comment and sharing your personal experience.

      We sometimes need to get a notch or two to look a bit deeper what is going on inside of us. To do so, however, needs also a bit of awareness that something doesn’t run smoothly and in your case, you are aware of it. 

      This is always a good start to move forward and, at least, try something new which might help to improve a situation or condition.

      Yes, Amanda, stick with the Tiger Eye stone but I also would suggest that you further try out one of the gemstones mentioned in my article. and see what it does to you. Using affirmation also can help to bring any stagnation into a flow again.

      Certainly, feel free to search through my website and to your question about the video, it is a working process and needs still a bit of time to come to fruition. 🙂

      All the best

      Sylvia

  5. This is interesting and I learned some stuff about the 5th chakra called Visshuddu. I like to express whatever I am thinking but sometimes I do it in a hushed way that people can not understand why I do it. I would like to increase my expression and this is a cool service you offer. I appreciate the list of foods that can help to correct anything that might be happening with my 5th chakra.

    1. Yes, Jon, it sometimes takes time to change or change a condition. I am glad you have found some useful information about the 5th chakra and what else you can do to get it balanced.

      Thank you for your time leaving a comment.

      All the best

      Sylvia

  6. Wow, this is a really good review of this post. Another interesting fact about this 5th chakra is that it is known as vishuddha, the throat, and it serves as the center of communication, expression of happiness, sadness and so on. And I like the fact that its emotional state is speaking the truth which is a core virtue everyone should possess. Thank you for this wonderful review.

  7. I read through one of your links in this article to the thyroid article, as you say the 5th Chakra is the “Throat” chakra which is connected to the thyroid.  I have been reading a lot lately (for some reason) about the thyroid, and I even read that we should be taking iodine supplements for the thyroid, so I bought a bottle of iodine and take it as a supplement daily.  The thyroid is pretty important, I guess.  As important as the thyroid is, the voice is equally important for different reasons.  Our feelings, our expressions.  These affect our overall health like the thyroid does as well, just in a different way.

    1. Babsie, yes, the thyroid is a very important gland but, like the gall bladder and the spleen, it doesn’t get the right recognition from the medical profession how important they are to our overall health. I am saying this, because these “three” are being way too quickly and, still, way too often be removed. The fallout, energetically speaking, is sometimes very profound.

      I personally do know this, since in my family, three of them, also have got their thyroid removed and they still do struggle with certain health conditions afterward.

      Yes, iodine is important to the thyroid function and it is a good decision of you to supplement it.

      Thank you for leaving a comment and sharing your personal experience.

      All the best to you

      Sylvia

  8. Oh my word, the 5th Chakra… it reminds me of being in rehab treatment for drug addiction when we did a crystal meditation and the person guiding the meditation put crystals on me. During the meditation the one by my throat got so hot there were a number of times I wanted to jump up and rip the stone off me.

    It is very fitting what you say about the keywords “Surrender your personal Will to the Divine Will” since at that time I was struggling with the 3rd step of the 12 steps “Made a decision to turn our will and our lives over to the care of God as we understood him”. 

    Another thing I was struggling with was being honest, with myself and everyone else. As is quite normal in early recovery from addiction. 

    This is the first time I have read indepth about the 5th chakra, thank you for the interesting insight.

    1. Thank you, Lynne, for commenting on my article and for sharing openly your personal insight on the matter.

      Yes, it isn’t the first time I have heard it that people do feel the energy of the gemstone or crystal as very hot or even very cold, both are valid. I even had, once, a client who asked me to remove a stone on one of her chakras during a balancing session, because she could handle the energy anymore.

      In her case, it was the sacral chakra (2nd chakra) and after the session, she confided in me that she, as a teenage girl was raped and also had two miscarriages as a young woman. I was glad that on this day I didn’t have anymore client and she was the last one. I took my time with her since I felt this was needed.

      As you can see Lynne, it isn’t unusual to experience these things, especially when you on the road of recovery, may it be from an addiction or from a traumatic experience, our soul and our body does know, at any given moment, what to do to get our attention and to let go and start anew.

      I am glad my article did give you some more insight into the subject matter. This is why I am writing about it. 🙂

      Wishing you all the best!

      Sylvia

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